It is usual that the head of state, particularly in parliamentary systems as part of the symbolic role, is the one who opens the annual sessions of the legislature, e. Even in presidential systems the head of state often formally reports to the legislature on the present national status, e. Most countries require that all bills passed by the house or houses of the legislature be signed into law by the head of state.
In some states, such as the United Kingdom, Belgium and Ireland, the head of state is, in fact, formally considered a tier of the legislature. However, in most parliamentary systems, the head of state cannot refuse to sign a bill, and, in granting a bill their assent, indicate that it was passed in accordance with the correct procedures. The signing of a bill into law is formally known as promulgation. Some monarchical states call this procedure royal assent. In some parliamentary systems, the head of state retains certain powers in relation to bills to be exercised at his or her discretion.
They may have authority to veto a bill until the houses of the legislature have reconsidered it, and approved it a second time; reserve a bill to be signed later, or suspend it indefinitely generally in states with royal prerogative ; this power is rarely used ; refer a bill to the courts to test its constitutionality; refer a bill to the people in a referendum. If he or she is also chief executive, he or she can thus politically control the necessary executive measures without which a proclaimed law can remain dead letter, sometimes for years or even forever.
A head of state is often empowered to summon and dissolve the country's legislature. In most parliamentary systems , this is often done on the advice of the head of government. In some parliamentary systems, and in some presidential systems, however, the head of state may do so on their own initiative. Some states have fixed term legislatures, with no option of bringing forward elections e.
Constitution . In other systems there are usually fixed terms, but the head of state retains authority to dissolve the legislature in certain circumstances. Where a head of government has lost support in the legislature, some heads of state may refuse a dissolution, where one is requested, thereby forcing the head of government's resignation. Although many constitutions, particularly from the 19th century and earlier, make no explicit mention of a head of state in the generic sense of several present day international treaties, the officeholders corresponding to this position are recognised as such by other countries.
In medieval Europe, it was universally accepted that the Pope ranked first among all rulers and was followed by the Holy Roman Emperor. In a republic , the head of state nowadays usually bears the title of President , but some have or had had other titles. Though president and various monarchical titles are most commonly used for heads of state, in some nationalistic regimes, the leader adopts, formally or de facto, a unique style simply meaning "leader" in the national language, e.
In , when former British crown colony Singapore gained self-government, it adopted the Malay style Yang di-Pertuan Negara literally means "head of state" in Malay for its governor the actual head of state remained the British monarch. The second and last incumbent of the office, Yusof bin Ishak , kept the style at 31 August unilateral declaration of independence and after 16 September accession to Malaysia as a state so now as a constituent part of the federation, a non-sovereign level.
After its expulsion from Malaysia on 9 August , Singapore became a sovereign Commonwealth republic and installed Yusof bin Ishak as its first president. In after the resignation of Vice-President of Indonesia Mohammad Hatta , President Sukarno abolished the position and title of vice-president, assuming the positions of Prime Minister and Head of Cabinet. He also proclaimed himself president for life Indonesian : Presiden Seumur Hidup Panglima Tertinggi ; " panglima " meaning "commander or martial figurehead", " tertinggi " meaning "highest"; roughly translated to English as "Supreme Commander of the Revolution".
He was praised as " Paduka Yang Mulia ", a Malay honorific originally given to kings; Sukarno awarded himself titles in that fashion due to his noble ancestry. There are also a few nations in which the exact title and definition of the office of head of state have been vague. During the Chinese Cultural Revolution , following the downfall of Liu Shaoqi , who was State Chairman Chinese President , no successor was named, so the duties of the head of state were transferred collectively to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
Although the presidency is a largely ceremonial office with limited power, the symbolic role of a Head of State is now generally performed by Xi Jinping , who is also General Secretary of the Communist Party Communist Party leader and Chairman of the Central Military Commission Supreme Military Command , making him the most powerful person in China.
In North Korea, the late Kim Il-sung was named " Eternal President " 4 years after his death and the presidency was abolished. As a result, some of the duties previously held by the president are constitutionally delegated to the chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly , who performs some of the roles of a head of state , such as accrediting foreign ambassadors and undertaking overseas visits. However, the symbolic role of a Head of State is generally performed by Kim Jong-un , who as the leader of the party and military , is the most powerful person in North Korea.
There is debate as to whether Samoa was an elective monarchy or an aristocratic republic , given the comparative ambiguity of the title O le Ao o le Malo and the nature of the head of state's office. In some states the office of head of state is not expressed in a specific title reflecting that role, but constitutionally awarded to a post of another formal nature. Thus in March Colonel Muammar Gaddafi , who kept absolute power until his overthrow in referred to as "Guide of the Revolution" , after ten years as combined Head of State and Head of government of the Libyan Jamahiriya "state of the masses" , styled Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council, formally transferred both qualities to the General secretaries of the General People's Congress comparable to a Speaker respectively to a Prime Minister, in political reality both were his creatures.
In Uganda , Idi Amin the military leader after the coup of 25 January was formally styled military head of state till 21 February , only from then on regular but unconstitutional, not elected president. In certain cases a special style is needed to accommodate imperfect statehood, e. In , the same office was restyled as " President of the State of Palestine ". Bodin named on title page of Discorsi politici by Fabio Albergati who compared Bodin's political theories unfavourably with those of Aristotle.
Frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes ' Leviathan Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan used the term Sovereign. The monarchies who survived through this era were the ones who were willing to subject themselves to constitutional limitations. Whenever a head of state is not available for any reason, constitutional provisions may allow the role to fall temporarily to an assigned person or collective body. In a republic, this is - depending on provisions outlined by the constitution or improvised - a vice-president , the chief of government, the legislature or its presiding officer.
In a monarchy, this is usually a regent or collegial regency council. For example, in the United States the vice-president acts when the president is incapacitated, and in the United Kingdom the queen's powers may be delegated to counselors of state when she is abroad or unavailable. Neither of the two co-princes of Andorra is resident in Andorra; each is represented in Andorra by a delegate, though these persons hold no formal title.
There are also several methods of head of state succession in the event of the removal, disability or death of an incumbent head of state. In early modern Europe, a single person was often monarch simultaneously of separate states. A composite monarchy is a retrospective label for those cases where the states were governed entirely separately.
Of contemporary terms, a personal union had less government co-ordination than a real union. One of the two co-princes of Andorra is the president of France. The Commonwealth realms share a monarch, currently Elizabeth II. In the realms other than the United Kingdom, a governor-general governor general in Canada is appointed by the sovereign, usually on the advice of the relevant prime minister although sometimes it is based on the result of a vote in the relevant parliament, which is the case for Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands , as a representative and to exercise almost all the Royal Prerogative according to established constitutional authority.
In Australia the present queen is generally assumed to be head of state, since the governor-general and the state governors are defined as her "representatives". To a lesser extent, uncertainty has been expressed in Canada as to which officeholder—the monarch, the governor general, or both—can be considered the head of state. New Zealand,  Papua New Guinea ,  and Tuvalu  explicitly name the monarch as their head of state though Tuvalu's constitution states that "references in any law to the Head of State shall be read as including a reference to the governor-general" .
Governors-general are frequently treated as heads of state on state and official visits; at the United Nations , they are accorded the status of head of state in addition to the sovereign. An example of a governor-general departing from constitutional convention by acting unilaterally that is, without direction from ministers, parliament, or the monarch occurred in , when Canada's governor general refused the head of government's formal advice requesting a dissolution of parliament and a general election.
In a letter informing the monarch after the event, the Governor General said: "I have to await the verdict of history to prove my having adopted a wrong course, and this I do with an easy conscience that, right or wrong, I have acted in the interests of Canada and implicated no one else in my decision. Another example occurred when, in the Australian constitutional crisis , the governor-general unexpectedly dismissed the prime minister in order to break a stalemate between the House of Representatives and Senate over money bills.
The governor-general issued a public statement saying he felt it was the only solution consistent with the constitution, his oath of office, and his responsibilities, authority, and duty as governor-general. Since antiquity , various dynasties or individual rulers have claimed the right to rule by divine authority, such as the Mandate of Heaven and the divine right of kings. Some monarchs even claimed divine ancestry, such as Egyptian pharaohs and Sapa Incas , who claimed descent from their respective sun gods and often sought to maintain this bloodline by practising incestuous marriage.
In Ancient Rome , during the Principate , the title divus 'divine' was conferred notably posthumously on the emperor , a symbolic, legitimating element in establishing a de facto dynasty.
7e. Presidential Character
In Roman Catholicism , the pope was once sovereign pontiff and head of state, first, of the politically important Papal States. After Italian unification , the pope remains head of state of Vatican City. Furthermore, the bishop of Urgell is ex officio one of the two co-princes of Andorra. In the Church of England , the reigning monarch holds the title Defender of the Faith and acts as supreme governor of the Church of England, although this is purely a symbolic role. During the early period of Islam , caliphs were spiritual and temporal absolute successors of the prophet Mohammed.
Various political Muslim leaders since have styled themselves Caliph and served as dynastic heads of state, sometimes in addition to another title, such as the Ottoman Sultan. Historically, some theocratic Islamic states known as imamates have been led by imams as head of state, such as in what is now Oman , Yemen , and Saudi Arabia. In Hinduism , certain dynasties adopted a title expressing their positions as "servant" of a patron deity of the state, but in the sense of a viceroy under an absentee god-king , ruling "in the name of" the patron god ess , such as Patmanabha Dasa servant of Vishnu in the case of the Maharaja of Travancore.
From the time of the 5th Dalai Lama until the political retirement of the 14th Dalai Lama in , Dalai Lamas were both political and spiritual leaders "god-king" of Tibet.
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Outer Mongolia , the former homeland of the imperial dynasty of Genghis Khan , was another lamaist theocracy from , using various styles, such as tulku. The establishment of the Communist Mongolian People's Republic replaced this regime in A collective head of state can exist in republics internal complexity , e. A diarchy , in two rulers was the constitutional norm, may be distinguished from a coregency , in which a monarchy experiences an exceptional period of multiple rulers. In the Roman Republic there were two heads of state, styled consul , both of whom alternated months of authority during their year in office, similarly there was an even number of supreme magistrates in the Italic republics of Ancient Age.
In the Athenian Republic there were nine supreme magistrates, styled archons. In Carthage there were two supreme magistrates, styled kings or suffetes judges. In ancient Sparta there were two hereditary kings, belonging to two different dynasties. In the Soviet Union the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets between and later the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet between served as the collective head of state. Czechoslovakia remained the only country among them that retained an office of president as a form of a single head of state throughout this period, followed by Romania in Such arrangements are not to be confused with supranational entities which are not states and are not defined by a common monarchy but may or not have a symbolic, essentially protocollary, titled highest office, e.
The National Government of the Republic of China , established in , had a panel of about 40 people as collective head of state. Though beginning that year, a provisional constitution made the Kuomintang the sole government party and the National Government bound to the instructions of the Central Executive Committee of that party.
The position of head of state can be established in different ways, and with different sources of legitimacy. Power can come from force, but formal legitimacy is often established, even if only by fictitious claims of continuity e. There have been cases of sovereignty granted by deliberate act, even when accompanied by orders of succession as may be the case in a dynastic split. Such grants of sovereignty are usually forced, as is common with self-determination granted after nationalist revolts.
This occurred with the last Attalid king of Hellenistic Pergamon , who by testament left his realm to Rome to avoid a disastrous conquest. Under a theocracy, perceived divine status translated into earthly authority under divine law. This can take the form of supreme divine authority above the state's, granting a tool for political influence to a priesthood. In this way, the Amun priesthood reversed the reforms of Pharaoh Akhenaten after his death. The division of theocratic power can be disputed, as happened between the Pope and Holy Roman Emperor in the investiture conflict when the temporal power sought to control key clergy nominations in order to guarantee popular support, and thereby his own legitimacy, by incorporating the formal ceremony of unction during coronation.
The notion of a social contract holds that the nation—either the whole people or the electorate —gives a mandate, through acclamation or election.
Leadership and constitution Essay
Individual heads of state may acquire their position by virtue of a constitution. The position of a monarch is usually hereditary , but in constitutional monarchies , there are usually restrictions on the incumbent's exercise of powers and prohibitions on the possibility of choosing a successor by other means than by birth. In a hereditary monarchy, the position of monarch is inherited according to a statutory or customary order of succession , usually within one royal family tracing its origin through a historical dynasty or bloodline.
This usually means that the heir to the throne is known well in advance of becoming monarch to ensure a smooth succession. However, many cases of uncertain succession in European history have often led to wars of succession. Primogeniture , in which the eldest child of the monarch is first in line to become monarch, is the most common system in hereditary monarchy. The order of succession is usually affected by rules on gender. Historically "agnatic primogeniture" or "patrilineal primogeniture" was favoured, that is inheritance according to seniority of birth among the sons of a monarch or head of family , with sons and their male issue inheriting before brothers and their issue, and male-line males inheriting before females of the male line.
Complete exclusion of females from dynastic succession is commonly referred to as application of the Salic law see Terra salica. Before primogeniture was enshrined in European law and tradition, kings would often secure the succession by having their successor usually their eldest son crowned during their own lifetime, so for a time there would be two kings in coregency — a senior king and a junior king. Sometimes, however, primogeniture can operate through the female line. In some systems a female may rule as monarch only when the male line dating back to a common ancestor is exhausted.
In , Sweden , by rewriting its Act of Succession , became the first European monarchy to declare equal full cognatic primogeniture, meaning that the eldest child of the monarch, whether female or male, ascends to the throne. Similar reforms were proposed in for the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms , which came into effect in after having been approved by all of the affected nations. Sometimes religion is affected; under the Act of Settlement all Roman Catholics and all persons who have married Roman Catholics are ineligible to be the British monarch and are skipped in the order of succession.
In some monarchies there may be liberty for the incumbent, or some body convening after his or her demise, to choose from eligible members of the ruling house , often limited to legitimate descendants of the dynasty's founder. Rules of succession may be further limited by state religion , residency, equal marriage or even permission from the legislature. Other hereditary systems of succession included tanistry , which is semi-elective and gives weight to merit and Agnatic seniority.
In some monarchies, such as Saudi Arabia , succession to the throne usually first passes to the monarch's next eldest brother, and only after that to the monarch's children agnatic seniority. Election usually is the constitutional way to choose the head of state of a republic, and some monarchies, either directly through popular election, indirectly by members of the legislature or of a special college of electors such as the Electoral College in the United States , or as an exclusive prerogative.
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Exclusive prerogative allows the heads of states of constituent monarchies of a federation to choose the head of state for the federation among themselves, as in the United Arab Emirates and Malaysia. The Pope, head of state of Vatican City, is chosen by previously appointed cardinals under 80 years of age from among themselves in a papal conclave. A head of state can be empowered to designate his successor, such as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth Oliver Cromwell , who was succeeded by his son Richard. A head of state may seize power by force or revolution.
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This is not the same as the use of force to maintain power, as is practised by authoritarian or totalitarian rulers. Dictators often use democratic titles, though some proclaim themselves monarchs. Cannot evaluate application materials are received. Acted remedy the problem if we having a real hunger for knowledge. Graphic organizers help kids see the relationship between parts of my thesis came about when he started his academic career as this is case.
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Shays and Job Shattuck — , both veterans of the Revolutionary Army and leaders of the rebellion, are depicted in this scene. In , James Madison and George Washington were in the midst of a written conversation about ways to create a stronger national government. In September , delegates from five states met in Annapolis, Maryland, ostensibly to discuss barriers to trade under the Articles of Confederation. The commissioners decided that not enough states were represented to make any substantive agreement.
In this letter written in on the eve of the federal Constitutional Convention, James Madison warns George Washington of the dangers from both temporizers and radicals. Madison also sketches his plans for a new federal government and constitution to be formulated in Philadelphia. Delegates to the Federal Constitutional Convention of created the instrument of government in the East Room on the first floor of the Pennsylvania State House, which is known as Independence Hall because the American Declaration of Independence was adopted here on July 4, In order to secure secrecy the delegates took an oath and met behind closed doors and windows with pulled drapes.
John Rubens Smith. Sketch of the State House In Philadelphia , . Pencil drawing. Prints and Photographs Division , Library of Congress The delegates took an oath of secrecy and met behind closed doors and windows with pulled drapes throughout the often hot and humid Delaware Valley summer. This engraving shows a view of the State House from High Street. Hand-colored engraving.
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Springland, Pennsylvania: William Birch and Son, A minimum of five territories or states were to be created. Each was to have a republican government with an executive, legislative council upper house , assembly, and judiciary. Not only was the territory north and west of the Ohio River to be settled by Americans and admitted into full statehood in the union, but the Ordinance stipulated that those territories would be free from slavery or involuntary servitude and have a bill of rights.
Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the U. Northwest of the Ohio. New York, Nathan Dane — , who authored the clause prohibiting slavery, annotated this copy. An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the U. New York: Philadelphia, site of both Continental Congresses, was one of the most urban, advanced cities in America in the eighteenth century. The bottom of the map contains an illustration of the State House, home of the second Continental Congress and the Federal Convention of A Plan of the City and Environs of Philadelphia.
Lotter, ]. Hand-colored engraved map. Geography and Map Division , Library of Congress Paper currency, — Printed by Hall and Sellers; Rhode Island. Paper Currency,
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